the thinker

Early American Influences on the Book of Mormon

by Thomas E. Donofrio

Solomon Spalding (1761-1816) is considered by some researchers to be the original author of the Book of Mormon. One aspect not addressed in the research is that Spalding engages in an acceptable practice of the day, namely heavy borrowing and outright plagiarism. This will have implications for the validity of wordprint studies comparing Spalding's manuscript and the Book of Mormon. Spalding demonstrates a lack of originality both in vocabulary and concept. The evidence for this is illustrated by comparing his manuscript to the History of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution, published in 1805 by Mercy Otis Warren (1728-1814).

Warren, noted for her elegant prose, politely lectures the reader, in addition to relating history. She uses her History as a forum to enlighten the current generation with her "moral observations" on republicanism, power, greed, mankind, Christianity, good versus evil, and the plight of the American Indian. She implores the reader to not forget the hard-fought lessons of the revolution, lest freedom be lost. Also, Warren fears that a newly acquired prosperity will corrupt this generation. In effect, her History is a sermon preaching that God was instrumental in delivering the colonies and that avarice and ambition are the motives that impelled the Crown to engage in a wanton struggle of subjugation and slavery.

Spalding, a veteran of the Revolution, borrows from Warren as he relates his view on the war, using fictional Indians as the vehicle. Spalding is not so much interested in giving an accurate account of Indian history as he is in emulating Warren. Spalding imputes into his Indians motives and creates situations similar to the motives and Revolutionary War scenes described in Warren's history. Spalding, not content with borrowing her concepts, lifts her prose as well. As a result, his own moral melodrama emerges as a poor copy.

Contents for this page


1. The Spalding Manuscript

2. BOM Historical Influences

3. BOM Religious Influences



Part I - The Spalding Manuscript

The following comparisons will illustrate Spalding's appropriation of Warren. Both authors deliver introductory remarks, and, true to form, Spalding follows Warren's example. Her six page preface is entitled "An address to the Inhabitants of the United States." Spalding's preface is less than half as long and simply titled "Introduction." (In this section, page numbers from Warren's book are from the 1805 edition. Underlined text from Spalding indicates words that were stricken out in the original manuscript).

Warren Spalding
… she has endeavored, on all occasions, that the strictest veracity should govern her heart, and the most exact impartiality be the guide of her pen. This is an evidence of the author's impartiality and veracity.
…that the following pages will be perused with kindness and candor… …to peruse this volume with a clear head and a pure heart and a candid mind.
…the most interesting events… …the most interesting and important matters…
If the work should be so far useful or entertaining… …a great fund of entertainment…
The liberal-minded will peruse with candor… Apprehensive that skeptical illiberal or superstitious minds…
A more particular narrative…is not comprehended in the design of the present work…the reader is referred to more voluminous, or more minute descriptions… …every particular circumstance…would produce a volume too expensive…a more minute publication.

On page 234 of her History, Warren describes George Washington as a "Fabius," in reference to the Roman general. It so happens that Spalding selects Fabius as the name of his main character in the Manuscript . Warren at other times mentions Rome and Romans. Spalding builds his story around Romans landing accidentally in America instead of their original destination of Britain.

On page 226, Warren condemns the British for squandering an opportunity to spread Christianity. In the Manuscript, Chapter VIII, a great teacher named Lobaska enlightens the people.

Warren Spalding
…draw the inhabitants of the darker regions of the world, from their idolatry and superstition. Thus nations who had long been immersed in errors, might be led to embrace a religion, admirably adapted to the promotion of the happiness of mankind on earth… (p. 226) They forgot their old religion which was a confused & absurd medly of Idoltry & superstitious nonsense & embraced a religion more sublime & consistent, & more fraught with sentiments which would promote the happiness of mankind in this world. (Chap. VIII)

Warren, in her "Introductory Observations," laments the causes of the war.

Warren Spalding
…ambition and avarice are the leading springs which generally actuate the restless mind. From these primary sources of corruption have arisen all the rapine and confusion, the depredation and ruin, that have spread distress over the face of the earth… (p.2)

…rivers of human blood… (p. 221)
…ambition & avarice which devastate the world & produce rivers of human Blood…(Chap. VIII)

On page 220, Warren gives an account of the London riots of 1780. She notes that religious intolerance by Protestants toward Catholics was demonstrated by their outward wearing of blue cockades in their hats. The Protestant Associators, in addition to wearing the badge, engaged in social protest and destruction of property. Spalding has a similar incident in his Manuscript, when two groups of Indians prepare for war over the wearing of a blue feather.

Warren Spalding
Fifty or sixty thousand persons assembled in St. George's Fields, under the appellation of the Protestant Associators, distinguished by blue cockaides in their hats, a badge which they endeavored to affix to many well meaning persons… (p. 220) It had been the custom for several ages for the King and chiefs of the Kentucks to have the exclusive right to wear in their caps a bunch of blue feathers, which designated their preeminence over every nation. The Siotan princes envying them this distinguished honor & considering themselves as being at least their equals assumed the liberty to place bunches of Blue feathers upon their caps. This in the opinion of the Kentucks was an unpardonable offense…
Thus saith Bombal, the king…Ye have insulted my our honor & dignity, in assuming blue feathers which was the badge of our preeminence… (Chap. VIII)

Spalding's Lobaska intervenes to prevent bloodshed between the groups. Note that the material in Warren is clustered from page 220 to 226, as is Spalding's in Chapter VIII.

The major war in the Manuscript involves a love triangle between an evil king, a princess and a prince. The prince and princess, Elseon and Lamesa, elope, causing two nations to go to war. At one point, the princess expresses her fear that her husband and her father may eventually become combatants. She has the prince promise not to kill her father or brother should they meet on the battlefield. The prince promises to spare their lives, if he encounters them.

Warren relates the story of Count Kosciusco, a Polish military officer, who joined the revolution on the side of the colonies. Prior to coming to America, Kosciusco experienced a situation similar to the story of Elseon and Lamesa. This scene in Warren's History appears to be the inspiration for the episode in Spalding's Manuscript.

Warren Spalding
The lovers agreed on an elopment, and made an attempt to retire to France; pursued and overtaken by the father of the lady, a fierce rencounter ensued. When Kosciusco found he must either surrender the object of his affection, or take the life of her parent, humanity prevailed over his passion, he returned the sword to its scabbard, and generously relinquished the beautiful daughter to her distressed father, rather than become the murderer of the person who gave being to so much elegance and beauty, now plunged in terror and despair from the tumult of contending passions… (Note VII, p 316) …the astonishing tidings of Lamesas elopement…
When these armies meet, should you not plunge your sword into the heart of my Father & my Brother…
I conjure you if you have any regard for my happiness, not to take their lives if in your power.
Rather than that my hands should be stained with the blood of your dearest friends I will present my bosom to their swords… (Chap. XII)

Warren documents the activities of the colonists in response to British aggression prior to a declaration of war. Committees of safety were established by Americans and by Spalding's Indians.

Warren Spalding
…to provide ammunition, provisions and warlike stores, and to deposite them in some place of safety… (p. 164) …Provide military implements, & to deposit them in a secure place.
…improve themselves in the military art… (p. 158) …their improvements in the art of war.
…to perfect themselves in the art of war… (p. 161) …in learning the military art… (Chap. X)

Taken individually, the previous parallels could be explained away as common usage of the day or chance occurrence. However, the more they occur, particularly when they fall into a pattern or cluster, the more it strengthens the argument that Spalding was taking his cues from Mercy Warren. The following list is a comparison between Warren and Spalding of similar vocabulary and phraseology scattered throughout both works.

Warren Spalding
humanity recoiled at the idea
humanity shudders
Humanity recoils at the sufferings
Humanity recoils at a view of the wretched
the trembling heart has recoiled at
humanity recoils at beholding
dropped a tear
drop a tear
must drop a tear
dropped a tear
inhabited only by savage men and beasts
the savages, and the wild beasts
beasts and savages
inhabited by savages & wild ferocious beasts
surrounded by hordes
innumerable hordes
hordes of savages
surrounded by innumerable hordes
hordes of savages
tribes of copper-colored savages copper colored tribe
Let imagination paint
Imagination may easily paint
imagination can paint
Imagination alone can paint
The success of the enterprise
"I will recover this country, or perish in the attempt."
I will either triumph with you in the success of the enterprise or perish in the attempt
without distinction of age or sex without distinction of age or sex
the blood of the aggressor the Blood of the Transgressor
watery grave watry tomb
to weep at the recollection of the ashes of the brave, scattered over the heights and plains of the American world tread lightly on the ashes of the venerable dead

scattered over an extensive Country
thirst for revenge
thirst for glory
thirst for revenge
thirst for glory
implements of war warlike implements
military manoeuvres military manoevers
maxims of war a true maxim that to avoid war
a war enkindled by avarice It was avarice, cursed avarice which induced me to engage in this horrid war
blood of the citizens blood of our citizens
the crimson tide that threatened to deluge the land to deluge our land with the blood of our citizens
effusion of human blood effusion of human blood
the blood of the citizens had flowed in copious streams
the weapons of war spread death over three fourths of the globe, without satiating the thirst that drinks up rivers of human gore
redoubled their efforts in spreading death and carnage
thirsted for each other's blood
satiated its thirst by copious draughts of human blood
devastate the world and produce rivers of human blood
staining the sword with the blood stained with the blood
prepared to conquer or die in defense of their country determined either to die gloriously fighting or to obtain victory
determined to conquer or die
die, gloriously fighting in the cause of their country and their God
destruction and death
slaughter and bloodshed
death & destruction
blood & slaughter
astonishment and terror amazement & terror
the gusts drove it in the faces of the army with great velocity full in the faces of the Kentucks
enkindled the flames of civil war blowing them into the flames of war
vigor of manhood
vigor of youth
vigor of youth & manhood
some future day in some future age
a smart skirmish ensued; several were killed, and a number wounded on both sides

with great spirit and bravery on both sides
with valor equally honorary to both parties
displayed by both parties
Many bloody skirmishes ensued with various success, & many feats of heroism were displaid on both sides

equal feats of valor were displayed by contending heroes
the brave men who fell brave warriors fell on both sides
Most of his army was destroyed by the sword warriors who had fallen by the sword
was destroyed by the sword of Sambal
the blessings of peace the blessings of peace
took a very affectionate leave take an affectionate farewell
solemn adieu
bade adieu
last adieu
final adieu
bade an affectionate adieu
feelings of the human heart feelings of the human heart
fraught with sentiments fraught with sentiments
stratagem statigem
race of beings race of beings
pierced the souls pierce my soul
on their bended knees, to implore on my bended knees implore
It is now time to leave for the present And here we will leave them for the present
He did not stop here, but But not willing to stop here
customs, manners, religion and laws customs, manners, religion & arts & sciences
The command of this little band had been given to colonel Arnold The command of these bands were given to Elseon
"The carnage was great; we trampled thick on the dead bodies that were strewed in the way." the ground which was strewed thick with the slain
The field was widely strewed & in many places thickly covered with human bodies
glutted with the blood of innocent victims carnage shall glut our indignant swords
wisdom and firmness of mind wisdom & penetration of mind
with all possible expedition with all possible expedition
vigorous exertions vigorous exertions
pushed on through a narrow passage forcing his march into the city through this narrow passage
effeminated by luxury
effeminate & luxurious court
beyond his own most sanguine expectations
the most sanguine expectations
having thus succeeded, even beyond his most sanguine expectations
sanguine in their expectations
his success answered his most sanguine expectations
how often are the most sanguine expectations disappointed
having thus succeeded beyond our expectation
manly manly
monster monster
perfidious perfidious
high birth highborn
huzzaed huzzas
with one general voice with one voice
diffusing universal knowledge diffuse a more accurate knowledge
laid his enemy dead at his feet Prostrate he tumbled at the feet of Hamkoo
nearest friends and relations dearest friends & relations
enriching themselves with the spoils enriched himself by a prodigious mass of plunder
threw down their arms, and fled with great precipitation
threw down their arms and fled
he ordered them to lay down their arms and disperse immediately
he offered pardon…to all who should lay down their arms
laid down their arms and submitted either as prisoners of war
laying down their arms at the feet of the victorious Washington
threw down their arms and surrendered
agree to lay down their arms
In defense of our persons and properties protected in their persons & properties
page of history page of history
time immemorial time immemorial
surrendered themselves prisoners of war surrendered themselves prisoners of war
the cause of his country the cause of their country
whole empire whole empire
innocent blood innocent blood

At this point Spalding should receive some benefit of the doubt. Warren certainly did not invent all of the previous phrases. In fact, many of these terms can be found throughout colonial writing. David Ramsay(1749-1815) published his own History of the American Revolution sixteen years prior to Warren. Much of the same verbiage can be found in his work, although it is less eloquent. It is likely that Warren used Ramsay as a reference, given the fact that she was well-read. It is the eloquence of Mercy Warren that tips the scale in favor of Spalding having selected her style. To follow suit, "Let imagination paint" a picture of Spalding, a sickly, impoverished, old veteran, reading Warren late into the evening by candlelight. Her lovely words and prose impress his mind. He recognizes her success as an author and is inspired to spin his own tale of the conflict he experienced. Spalding's Kentucks and Sciotans represent the Americans and British. The Kentucks are presented as innocents attacked by a greedy, jealous king of the Sciotans, representing the king of England. As Spalding builds his story, he leans on Warren to fill deficiencies in his writing ability.

Spalding was not original even when his main character Fabius delivers a racial slur. Fabius laments that he and his shipwrecked crew are doomed to remain among people that resemble "the Orang outang." This term was evidently in circulation. In an essay on education, Robert Coram (1761-1796) postulates:

…if the present race of American Indians should shortly become extinct, it would be impossible for posterity to form any judgment of them, whether they were a species of orangutan or rational beings.

Spalding's story begins with Roman sailors landing on the American continent and their first contact with indigenous people. Similarly, both Warren and Ramsay also begin their histories with ocean-sailing pilgrims and their discovery of Indians. If Spalding were following a pattern, it is natural that his voyagers would land on New World shores and encounter natives, as was documented by Warren and Ramsay.

As the Manuscript progresses, Fabius and his troop live for two years among these natives. Eventually, they decide to explore and must leave their new friends. The departure scene is reminiscent of the farewell George Washington gave to his group of officers after the British surrender, as documented by Warren and Ramsay. Additionally, Ramsay repeats the scene in his Life of George Washington.

Warren Spalding
…the general took a very affectionate leave of his brave and faithful soldiers…

…and in the course of this solemn adieu, the big tear stole down the cheeks of men of courage and hardihood… (pp. 319-320)
The King & his chiefs & many of his principal Subjects came forward to take an affectionate farewell. This was done on both sides with with mutual expressions of the most ardent & sincere friendship & the most earnest wishes & prayers for future prosperity & Happiness. Having taken our final adieu I observed Crito shedding tears very plentifully. (Chap. IV)

General Washington…addressed them, "with a Heart full of love and gratitude, I now take leave of you, I most devoutly wish that your latter days may be as prosperous and happy, as your former ones have been glorious and honorable." The officers came up successively, and he took an affectionate leave of each of them.

…and by waving his hat, he bid them a silent adieu. Some of them answered this last signal of respect and affection with tears… (pp. 329-330)

In Chapter IX of the Manuscript, Lobaska also leaves the people.

…at the age of eighty he bade an affectionate adieu to two Empires & left them to lament in tears his exit.

Even though Spalding demonstrates a heavy reliance on Warren, it is reasonable to assume that his predisposition to borrow would not be limited to her work. Spalding's Indian chiefs argue the merits of going to war in forms that resemble Parliamentary debate in England and the Continental Congress in America. For instance, in Chapter XII of the Manuscript, "the venerable Boakim arose" in council to question the worth of going to war over the princess Lamesa's elopement. Compare his opening remarks to those of Patrick Henry in his Liberty or Death speech.

Henry Spalding
…I hope it will not be thought disrespectful to those gentlemen if, entertaining as I do opinions of a character very opposite to theirs, I shall speak forth my sentiments freely and without reserve. This is not time for ceremony. The question before the house is one of awful moment to this country. For my own part, I consider it as nothing less than a question of freedom or slavery… I must beg, says he, the indulgence of your majesty, & this honorable council for a few moments. Never did I rise with such impressions of the high importance of our deliberations, as what I now feel. The great question to be decided, is peace or war.

Boakim does some preaching in the course of his speech. Compare his sentiments to those of the Muskingum tribe, documented by Mercy Warren on page 124 of her History.

Warren Spalding
"that the Great Spirit did not make men to destroy, but to assist and comfort each other." It was never designed by the great & good Being that his children should contend, & destroy that existence which he gave them.

Spalding was at one time a minister, and it is not surprising to find religious content in his Manuscript. In Chapter IV, his character Fabius paraphrases Bible verse. In a fit of despair, Fabius laments his condition by quoting a portion of Jeremiah 9:1.

Jeremiah 9:1 Spalding
Oh that my head were waters, and mine eyes a fountain of tears, that I might weep day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people! O that my head were water, & my eyes a fountain of tears, Then my intolerable burthen should should be poured forth in a torrent & my soul set at liberty.

To say Spalding borrowed from the Bible would be a true enough statement. However, something more subtle is occurring. Spalding is using a style common to preachers such as George Whitefield. In his sermon, Marks of a True Conversion, Whitefield bewails the condition of the sinners to whom he preaches.

O that my head were waters, O that mine eyes were a fountain of tears, that I might weep over an unconverted, graceless, wicked, and adulterous generation.

While this does not prove that Spalding borrowed from Whitefield, it does demonstrate that Spalding paraphrased Bible verse in the same style employed by famous preachers, such as George Whitefield and Jonathan Edwards. These ministers would incorporate Bible verse in their sermons, often without reference. Different verses were sometimes combined, as they would flow and weave among the preacher's dialogue. Most times, the preacher did not bother to identify verse, as if assuming the flock would recognize it, when heard or read.

Solomon Spalding was no more guilty of borrowing than any other writer of his time. Documentation or giving credit was at the whim of the author. Mercy Warren was an exception to the rule. Even though her documentation was not up to modern standards, it exceeded the norm. Spalding often crossed out passages in his handwritten manuscript, leaving the modern reader to wonder if he changed his mind or was panged by a guilty conscience.

Part II
The Book of Mormon: Historical Influences


The charge of plagiarism has followed Joseph Smith from the time he produced the Book of Mormon in 1830. His detractors have pointed to the many biblical references contained in the book. Indeed, whole chapters, verses, and pieces of verses are reproduced. His defenders find no controversy, claiming that since it is the word of God, it is reasonable to find similarities in both works.

If Joseph were a plagiarist after all, would he have been content to borrow from the Bible exclusively, or would the temptation to lift from additional resources have been too great to resist?

The Book of Mormon deals with those two subjects that should never be discussed in polite company, namely, religion and politics. No matter who the author, or authors may be, their strong feelings on both subjects are expressed in the characters and situations in the book.

The charge of plagiarism is a difficult position to prove. The Book of Mormon at first read does have a biblical sound. It is presented as a record of Hebrew origin. This would lend support to the book's defense. However, when it is compared to written material from the era of 1830, it sounds less and less biblical and more and more contemporary. Words, phrases, and concepts in the following study place the Book of Mormon squarely in the time of its production. The following comparisons will make a "word for word" translation an impossible position to defend.

Defenders will rush to say that any similarities are nothing more than the "language of the day." This is no doubt the case in many instances. Joseph Smith would have used the tools that were available at the time. But words are more than a group of letters, and groups of words are more than sentences. They convey meaning and concepts. The information in this study illustrates words and phrases in the Book of Mormon that reflect concepts and issues of a new United States. In the Bible, they are not used in the same context, or in many cases, do not even exist. Otherwise, ancient Americans, who the book states are descendants of Israelites, must have been no different than Revolutionary Americans of 1776. The comparisons indicate the Book of Mormon is a retelling of history, rather than a case of history repeating itself. The Book of Mormon may be considered as a moral melodrama. Out of concern for the present, an ancient people are sacrificed in order to teach lessons to modern readers. These ancient peoples fight the same battles for the same reasons as colonial Americans. They eventually lose the rights for which they fought hard. The modern reader is led to conclude that he will too, if he makes the same mistakes. The Book of Mormon itemizes those mistakes and offers their correction. It tackles issues under debate in early America and presents its own views as authoritative.

Mercy Otis Warren

In Part I, we saw that there are similarities in words, phrases, and themes between Spalding's Manuscript and the histories of Mercy Warren and David Ramsay. We can now demonstrate that there are numerous similarities of the same type in the Book of Mormon.

Compare the following parallels from Warren's History and the Book of Mormon. (Page numbers from Warren are from the 1989 Liberty Classics reprint.)

Warren Book of Mormon
sets at defiance both human and divine laws (p. 12)
law set at defiance (P. 81)
ye have set at defiance the commandments of God (Alma 5:18)
set at defiance the law (3 Nephi 6:30)
that man, in a state of nature (p. 12) men that are in a state of nature (Alma 41:11)
a consciousness of their own guilt (p. 109) a consciousness of his own guilt (Alma 14:6)
to conquer or die in defence of their country (p. 202) to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17)
defence of their country (Alma 51:20)
learn wisdom (p. 645) learn wisdom (2 Nephi 22:30)
tenderness of a parent (p. 237) tender parent (1 Nephi 8:37)
destruction was ripening (p. 543) ripening for destruction (Helaman 5:2)
Multitudes flocked from every quarter to the American standard (p. 129)
multitudes flocked to the American standard (p. 191)
thousands did flock unto his standard (Alma 62:5)
plant the standard of royalty (p. 241) planted the standard of liberty (Alma 46:36)
that manly spirit of freedom (p. 31) a true spirit of freedom (Alma 60:25)
a free people (p. 33)
a free government (p. 65)
a free people (Alma 21:21)
a free government (Alma 46:35)
the cause of liberty (p. 24) the cause of liberty (Alma 51:17)
that the voice of the people (p. 24) that the voice of the people (Alma 2:7)
The minds of the people (p. 87) the minds of the people (Alma 17:6)
their rights and privileges (p. 48) their rights and privileges (Alma 30:27)
the cause of freedom (p. 146) the cause of freedom (Alma 46:35)
cause of his country (p. 168)
the cause of their country (p. 34)
the rights of their country (p. 79)
the freedom of their country (p. 172)
cause of his country (Alma 62:1)
the cause of their country (Alma 56:11)
the rights of their country (3 Nephi 6:30)
the freedom of their country (Alma 59:13)
the rights for which our ancestors contended (p. 643) for this cause were the Nephites contending…to defend…their rights (Alma 43:47)
(Quoting Washington) "the welfare of their country" (p. 129) and welfare of my country (Alma 60:36)
the justice of their cause (p. 36)
the justice of the cause (p. 154)
the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
to take up arms in defence of their rights (p. 90) to take up arms in defence of their country (Alma 51:20)
deprive them of their rights (p. 332)
to maintain their rights (p. 337)
deprive them of their rights (Alma 2:4)
to maintain their rights (Alma 51:6)
welfare and happiness (p. 648) welfare and happiness (Helaman 12:2)
every man might (p. 628) every man might (Mosiah 29:34)
stand or fall (p. 104) stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
freemen (p. 175) freemen (Alma 51:6)
class of men (p. 601)
ranks and classes (p. 636)
class of people (Alma 32:2)
divided into classes (4 Nephi 1:26)
high birth (p. 236) high birth (Alma 51:8)
to be supported by the labor of the poor, or the taxation (p. 624) supported in their laziness…by the taxes (Mosiah 11:6)
the powers of the earth (p. 551) the powers of the earth (3 Nephi 28:39)
the God of nature (p. 76) The God of nature (1 Nephi 19:12)
the great Jehovah (p. 144)
Great Spirit (p. 285)
the great Jehovah (Moroni 10:34)
Great Spirit (Alma 18:2)
neck of land (p. 120) neck of land (Alma 22:32)
narrow passage (p. 146) narrow passage (Mormon 2:29)
the river Elk (p. 203) the river Sidon (Alma 3:3)
Moravian town (p. 286) Morianton (Alma 50:25)
the art of war (p. 270) the arts of war (Ether 13:16)
a council of war (p. 300) a council of war (Alma 52:19)
to carry the point (p. 108) not gain the point (Alma 46:29)
a full detail of their proceedings (p. 38) an account of their proceedings (Mosiah 28:9)
supplies of provisions (p. 208) supplies of provisions (Alma 55:34)
fallen into his hands (p. 145)
the prisoners who fell into his hands (p. 191)
fallen into his hands (Alma 53:11)
the prisoners who fell into his hands (Alma 52:8)
surrendered themselves prisoners of war (p. 182) surrendered themselves prisoners of war (Alma 57:14)
his whole army (p. 224) his whole army (Helaman 1:20)
with a part of his army (p. 191) with a part of his army (Alma 56:33)
at their head (p. 241) at their head (Alma 48:7)
thus reduced (p. 241) been reduced (Alma 56:10)
led captive (p. 241) led captive (Alma 40:13)
threw down their arms (p. 393)
laying down their arms at the feet of the victorious Washington (p. 484)
and laying them at the feet of the conquerer (p. 240)
threw down their weapons (Alma 52:38)
threw down their weapons of war at the feet of Moroni (Alma 52:38)
and cast them at the feet of the Nephites (Alma 55:23)
lay on their arms through the night (p. 232) when the night came they slept upon their swords (Ether 15:20)
to strengthen the hands of general Arnold (p. 256) strengthen the hand of the Nephites (Alma 2:18)
the warm altercations between them (p. 463)
A warm, but short, action (p. 207)
a warm contention (Alma 50:26)
a warm dispute (Alma 51:4)
British troops had yet met with no check (p. 428) did arrive in season to check them (Alma 57:18)
to harass their march (p. 269) did harass them (Alma 51:32)
were obliged to retreat in great confusion (p. 207)
were obliged to fly (p. 103)
fled in confusion (p. 374)
were obliged to flee before them (Alma 59:8)
fled in much confusion (Alma 52:28)
prepare to meet him (p. 159) they did prepare to meet them (Alma 2:12)
not sufficiently strong (p. 229) not sufficiently strong (Alma 56:23)
to to make an attack (p. 229) to make an attack (Alma 56:22)
entrenchments to be thrown up (p. 105) bank which had been thrown up (Alma 49:18)
chief commander (p. 398) chief commander (Alma 46:11)
to fall on the rear of the British (p. 183)
in the rear (p. 147)
to fall upon them in their rear (Alma 56:23)
in the rear (Alma 56:23)
cut off the retreat (p. 277)
their retreat cut off (p. 147)
cut off the way of their retreat (3 Nephi 4:24)
concealed himself in a wood, with fifteen hundred men (p. 203) part of the army of Moroni was concealed (Alma 43:34)
surrounded on all sides (p. 311) surrounded them on every side (Mosiah 21:5)
After two days wandering in the wilderness (p. 224) after many days' wandering in the wilderness (Mosiah 9:4)
took possession of the capitol (p. 204)
in possession of the first city in the union (p. 205)
took possession of the city (Alma 51:23)
in possession of the city of Zarahemla (Helaman 1:22)
general Montgomery…embarrassed with bad roads…and the murmur of his little army (p. 104) our embarrassments (Alma 58:9)
my little army (Alma 56:33)
we do not desire to murmur (Alma 58:35)
were this all we had suffered we would not murmur (Alma 60:4)
repeated disappointment (p. 98) he met with a disappointment (Alma 51:31)
Dissensions ran high among the inhabitants (p. 204) dissensions among the people (Alma 51:16)
they determined to maintain (p. 170) they were determined to maintain (Alma 56:26)
unshaken firmness (p. 242) firmness unshaken (Mormon 9:28)
destroyed by the sword (p. 221) destroyed by the sword (Alma 57:23)
death and destruction (p. 303) death and destruction (Alma 28:14)
an ignominious death (p. 584) an ignominious death (Alma 1:15)
fought and bled (p. 617) fought and bled (Alma 60:9)
delight in blood (p. 137) delight in blood (Mosiah 11:19)
spilling human blood (p. 78)
blood that had been spilt (p. 604)
spill your blood (Alma 44:11)
blood was spilt (Alma 57:9)
having received a dangerous wound (p. 147) having received a wound (Mosiah 20:13)
watery grave (p. 215) watery grave (1 Nephi 18:18)
dead and dreary (p. 599) dark and dreary (1 Nephi 8:4)
perished in the wilderness (p. 634) perished in the wilderness (1 Nephi 5:2)
robbed…and plundered (p. 99) rob and plunder (Mosiah 10:17)
Among the slain (p. 121) among the number who were slain (Helaman 1:30)
suffered much loss (p. 532)
great loss (p. 224)
suffered much loss (Alma 25:6)
great loss (Alma 57:23)
inexpressible (p. 272) inexpressible (Alma 36:14)
ferocious nations (p. 114) wicked and ferocious (Alma 47:36)
a monster (p. 665) awful monster (2 Nephi 9:10)
havoc (p. 278) havoc (Helaman 11:27)
to glut the ambition of a weak individual (p. 697) we do not glut ourselves upon the labors of this people (Alma 30:32)
the work of slaughter (p. 268) the work of death (Alma 43:37)
scene of carnage (p. 316) scene of blood and carnage (Mormon 5:8)
A part of the Muskingum tribe had professed themselves Christians of the Moravian sect. They considered war of any kind as inconsistent both with the laws of religion and humanity. They refused to take part with the numerous hostile tribes of savages, in the war against the Americans. (p. 285)
they, without resistance, suffered themselves to be bound and inhumanely butchered (p. 286)
Now there was not one soul among all the people who had been converted unto the Lord that would take up arms against their brethren; nay, they would not even make any preparations for war (Alma 24:6)

they suffered themselves to be slain (Alma 27:3)
neither the pen of the historian, or the imagination of the poet, can fully describe (p. 385) impossible for the tongue to describe, or for man to write (Mormon 4:11)
passions whetted by revenge (p. 281)
But in this war, they seemed to have lost those generous feelings of compassion to the vanquished foe (p. 278)
suffered themselves to be governed either by vindictive passions, or their feelings of resentment (p. 438)
For so exceedingly do they anger that it seemeth me that they have no fear of death; and they have lost their love, one towards another; and they thirst after blood and revenge continually (Moroni 9:5)
They waited long, amidst penury, hunger, and cold, for the necessary supplies (p. 211) we were about to perish for the want of food (Alma 58:7)
they were treated with as little mercy (p. 432) They are without order and without mercy (Moroni 9:18)
war among themselves (p. 653) war among themselves (1 Nephi 22:13)
impede their progress (p. 270) impede the progress (Alma 60:30)
the intrigues of the governmental faction (p. 86) the intrigues of the Lamanites (Alma 55:27)
combinations (p. 92)
to combine for the destruction of America (p. 87)
combinations (2 Nephi 9:9)
they did combine against the people of the Lord (3 Nephi 6:29)
contrary to the laws of (p. 635) contrary to the laws of (Helaman 6:23)
while the Ganges and the Indus were reddened with the blood, and covered with the slaughtered bodies of men (p. 338) the river Sidon, throwing the bodies of the Lamanites who had been slain into the waters (Alma 2:34)
who had been slain upon the bank of the river Sidon were cast into the waters (Alma 3:3)
(Quoting a letter from a British officer in India) "The carnage was great; we trampled thick on the dead bodies that were strewed in the way" (p. 597) scene of bloodshed and carnage, that the whole face of the land was covered with the bodies of the dead (Ether 14:21)
leaving the bodies of both men, women, and children strewed upon the face of the land (Ether 14:22)
a neighboring garrison, where a number of women and children had repaired for safety, and setting fire to both, they enjoyed the infernal pleasure of seeing them perish promiscuously in the flames (p. 280) the women and children who were consuming in the fire (Alma 14:10)
he compelled them…to take arms in case of an attack, against their brethren (p. 133) he commanded them that they should take up arms against their brethren (Alma 2:10)
precious metals (p. 417) precious metals (Helaman 6:9)
by my own industry (p. 139) by the hand of my industry (Alma 10:4)
the fruits of their labors (p. 712) the fruits of their labors (Alma 40:26)
the more fertile (p. 608) the more fertile (1 Nephi 16:16)
elegant buildings (p. 608) elegant and spacious buildings (Mosiah 11:8)
not far distant (p. 156) not far distant (Alma 7:7)
to the reader (p. 324) to the reader (Jacob 7:27)
But we shall see (p. 195) But behold, we shall see (Alma 51:10)
future generations (p. 609)
Some future day (p. 304)
future period (p. 287)
future generations (Alma 37:19)
some future day (Moroni 1:4)
future period (1 Nephi 7:13)
at this period (p. 25) at this period (Alma 51:19
in so short a time (p. 162)
space of time (p. 86)
in so short a space of time (Alma 56:50)
the commencement of (p. 98)
The progress of (p. 85)
the commencement of (Alma 51:1)
the progress of (Alma 60:30)
at this critical conjuncture (p. 39)
the critical moment (p. 110)
era was truly critical (p. 204)
this was a critical time (Alma 51:9)
critical circumstances (Alma 57:16)
awful situation (p. 213)
dangerous crisis (p. 29)
awful situation (Mosiah 2:40)
awful crisis (Alma 34:34)
to shrink (p. 572) to shrink (Alma 43:48)
In these circumstances (p. 595) in these circumstances (Alma 55:23)
genius to take advantage (p. 617) prospered according to his genius (Alma 30:17)
alarming (p. 26) this was alarming (Alma 2:3)
he bade adieu (p. 133) Brethren, adieu (Jacob 7:27)

Mercy Warren held liberal views toward Native Americans and believed they could be as civilized as any European, given the proper circumstances. However, she had misgivings about their future. The Book of Mormon expresses the same sentiment.

Warren Book of Mormon

the generous or humane mind may revolt at the idea, there appears a probability, that they will be hunted from the vast American continent, if not from the face of the globe (p. 284)

hunted millions of those unhappy people out of existence (p. 287)

Yea, I say unto you, that in the latter times the promises of the Lord have been extended to our brethren, the Lamanites; and notwithstanding the many afflictions which they shall have, and notwithstanding they shall be driven to and fro upon the face of the earth, and be hunted, and shall be smitten and scattered abroad, having no place for refuge (Helaman 15:12)

David Ramsay

As noted in Part I, it is probable that Mercy Warren used David Ramsay's History of the American Revolution as a source, since she repeats many of the same terms, phrases and concepts found in Ramsay's book. However, Ramsay's History also provides other parallels, in particular his references to George Washington. During the winter of 1776, Washington ordered an invasion of Quebec with the goal of driving out British troops. The command of this expedition was given to Benedict Arnold. The infamous turncoat and his army of one thousand endured extreme hardship while covering 180 miles of difficult terrain in bad conditions. After 45 days, Arnold entered Canada and delivered a letter from General Washington. Ramsay appears to have had a copy of Washington's letter. He refers to portions of it in his History, while relating the expedition of Colonel Arnold: "A manifesto subscribed by general Washington, which had been sent from Cambridge with this detachment, was circulated among the inhabitants of Canada. In this they were invited to arrange themselves under the standard of general liberty; and they were informed that the American army was sent into the province, not to plunder but to protect them."1 These are the only parts of the letter that he paraphrases. The complete text of Washington's letter appears below.

Friends and Brethren:

The unnatural Contest between the English Colonies, and Great Britain has now risen to such a height, that Arms alone must decide it.

The Colonies, confiding in the Justice of their Cause and the purity of their intentions, have reluctantly appealed to that Being, in whose hands are all Human Events: He has hitherto smiled upon their virtuous Efforts: The Hand of Tyranny has been arrested in its Ravages, and the British Arms, which have shone with so much Splendor in every part of the Globe, are now tarnished with disgrace and disappointment. Generals of approved experience, who boasted of subduing this great Continent, find themselves circumscribed within the limits of a single City and its Suburbs, suffering all the shame and distress of a Siege. While the Freeborn Sons of America, animated by the genuine principles of Liberty and Love of their Country, with increasing Union, Firmness and discipline, repel every attack and despise every Danger.

Above all we rejoice that our Enemies have been deceived with Regard to you: They have persuaded themselves, they have even dared to say, that the Canadians were not capable of distinguishing between the Blessings of Liberty and the Wretchedness of Slavery; that gratifying the Vanity of a little Circle of Nobility would blind the Eyes of the people of Canada. By such Artifices they hoped to bend you to their Views; but they have been deceived: Instead of finding in you that poverty of Soul, and baseness of Spirit, they see with a Chagrin equal to our Joy, that you are enlightened, generous, and Virtuous; that you will not renounce your own Rights, or serve as Instruments to deprive your Fellow subjects of theirs. Come then, my Brethren, Unite with us in an indissoluble Union. Let us run together to the same Goal. We have taken up Arms in Defence of our Liberty, our Property; our Wives and our Children: We are determined to preserve them or die. We look forward with pleasure to that day not far remote (we hope) when the Inhabitants of America shall have one Sentiment and the full Enjoyment of the blessings of a Free Government.

Incited by these Motives and encouraged by the advice of many Friends of Liberty among you, the Great American Congress have sent an Army into your Province, under the command of General Schuyler; not to plunder but to protect you; to animate and bring forth into Action those sentiments of Freedom you have declared, and which the Tools of despotism would extinguish through the whole Creation. To co-operate with this design and to frustrate those cruel and perfidious Schemes, which would deluge our Frontier with the Blood of Women and Children, I have detached Colonel Arnold into your Country, with a part of the Army under my Command. I have enjoined upon him, and am certain that he will consider himself, and act as in the Country of his Patrons and best Friends. Necessaries and Accommodations of every kind which you may furnish, he will thankfully receive, and render the full Value. I invite you as Friends and Brethren, to provide him with such supplies as your Country affords; and I pledge myself not only for your safety and security, but for ample Compensation. Let no Man desert his habitation. Let no Man flee as before an Enemy.

The cause of America and of liberty is the cause of every virtuous American Citizen. Whatever may be his Religion or his descent, the United Colonies know no distinction, but such as Slavery, Corruption and Arbitrary Domination may create. Come then ye generous Citizens, range yourselves under the Standard of general Liberty, against which all the force and Artifice of Tyranny will never be able to prevail. I am, etc. 2

In spite of Washington's eloquence the campaign ultimately failed.

So what, if anything, does this letter have to do with the Book of Mormon? A casual reader may have missed the parallels. A Book of Mormon expert will notice something more. For those less aware, the following comparisons are offered.

Washington Book of Mormon
Friends and Brethren
that Being
the Justice of their Cause
the Blessings of Liberty
Circle of Nobility
Unite with us
My friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
that Being (Mormon 5.2)
the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
the blessings of liberty (Alma 46:13)
bondage and slavery (Alma 48:11)
blood of nobility (Alma 51:21)
unite with us (3 Nephi 3:7)
We have taken up Arms in defence of our Liberty, our Property; our Wives and our Children they have taken up arms to defend themselves, and their wives, and their children, and their lands (Alma 35:13)
their liberty, their lands, their wives, and their children (Alma 48:10)
a determination to conquer our enemies, and to maintain our lands, and our possessions, and our wives, and our children (Alma 58:12)
in the defense of your liberty (3 Nephi 3:2)
We are determined to preserve them or die they were determined to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17)
a Free Government a free government (Alma 46:35)
The cause of America and of liberty the cause of our liberty (Alma 58:12)
his Religion his religion (Alma 48:13)
the Standard of general Liberty standard of liberty (Alma 46:36)

How can these similarities be explained? Is it possible that the author of the Book of Mormon had a copy of the letter and used it as a resource? Or, is this just "the language of the day," as the defenders of Joseph would say. Perhaps it is more reasonable to assume that the letter or the themes contained therein were available in full or in part in other more accessible works. The concepts put forth by Washington may be considered universal. Many of them were used by the other Founding Fathers. Since the parallels cannot be denied, the information must have been available to the author of the Book of Mormon in some form.

Washington's letter has further significance in relation to the character Moroni in the Book of Mormon. Moroni, in an effort to rally his people, takes his cloak and writes on it the following words: "In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children" (Alma 46:12). Moroni then

fastened it upon the end of a pole (Alma 46:12)

(and he called it the title of liberty)" (Alma 46:13)

And it came to pass also, that he caused the title of liberty to be hoisted upon every tower which was in all the land…and thus Moroni planted the standard of liberty among the Nephites. (Alma 46:36)

Washington implores the Canadians to "range yourselves under the Standard of general Liberty." Moroni has his own "standard of liberty," and places his "title of liberty" on "a pole." One of General Washington's many roving headquarters was the Liberty Pole Tavern, Englewood, New Jersey, 3 September 1780. Liberty poles were popular among the colonies. The Sons of Liberty stood guard over a liberty pole in New York, January 1770, defending it from vandalism by British soldiers. Writing on a flag was common. The words "LIBERTY and UNION" flew on the Taunton flag raised on a liberty pole in Massachusetts, 21 October 1744. The Liberty Tree flag declared, "AN APPEAL TO GOD."

At the age of twenty-one, George Washington traveled down the Ohio river to deliver a warning letter to the commander of French forces. Washington's journal detailing this adventure was published as a pamphlet in Williamsburg, Virginia and was reproduced in two installments of the Maryland Gazette on March 21 and 28, 1754. Both Warren and Ramsay refer to the publication of this journal, but neither reproduces any text from it. Nonetheless, similarities can be found between it and the Book of Mormon.

Washington Book of Mormon
the following account of my proceedings make an account of my proceedings (1Nephi 1:17)
the numberless Imperfections of it the imperfections which are in it (Mormon 8:12)
the Bastions are made of Piles driven into the Ground, and about 12 feet above, and sharp at Top upon those works of timbers there should be a frame of pickets (Alma 50:3)
every Stratagem by stratagem (Alma 43:30)
a Neck of Land neck of land (Alma 22:32)

The Book of Mormon notes that chief captain Moroni was only twenty-five, when he took command of the Nephite army (Alma 43:17). Washington was in his early twenties, when he was commissioned commander in chief of colonial troops, and Moroni was also made "chief commander" (Alma 46:11).

David Ramsay was a friend and confederate of George Washington. He honored his old friend in The Life of George Washington, published eight years after Washington's death. Ramsay also produced The History of the American Revolution, 1789, in two volumes. An analysis of Ramsay's works reveals Book of Mormon parallels in addition to those of Washington's letter.

For simplicity, the following page references to Ramsay's History are from the modern reprint.3

Ramsay Book of Mormon
standard of general liberty (p. 219)
standard of liberty (p. 646)
standard of liberty (Alma 62:4)
planted the standard of loyalty (p. 442) planted the standard of liberty (Alma 46:36)
flock to their standard (p. 274) flock unto his standard (Alma 62:5)
the blessings of liberty (p. 85) the blessings of liberty (Alma 46:13)
liberties, property, wives and children (p. 277) Their liberty, their lands, their wives, and their children (Alma 48:10)
a free government (p. 162) a free government (Alma 46:35)
the cause of liberty (p. 90) the cause of liberty (Alma 51:17)
the cause of American liberty (p. 512) the cause of our liberty (Alma 58:12)
in the cause of their country (p. 460) in the cause of their country (Alma 56:11)
the justice of the cause (p. 267)
the justice of their cause (p.181)
the justice of our cause (p. 178)
their cause to be just (p. 185)
the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
a just cause (Alma 55:1)
died in the cause of liberty (p. 178) died in the cause of their country (Alma 56:11)
in defence of their liberties (p. 634) in the defence of your liberty (3 Nephi 3:2)
spirit of freedom (p. 156) spirit of freedom (Alma 60:25)
rights and privileges (p. 401) rights and privileges (Mosiah 29:32)
to maintain their rights and privileges (p. 232) to maintain their rights and the privileges (Alma 51:6)
their rights and liberties (p. 232) their rights and their liberties (Alma 43:26)
safety and welfare (p. 398) welfare and safety (Alma 48:12)
determined on death or victory (p. 378) determined to conquer in this place or die (Alma 56:17)
appealing to that Being (p. 131) calling upon that Being (Mormon 5:2)
their Creator (p. 15) their Creator (Omni 1:7)
the great Jehovah (p. 211) the great Jehovah (Moroni 10:34)
virtuous freemen (p. 406) the name of freemen (Alma 51:6)
critical time (p. 512)
critical circumstances (p. 448)
critical time (Alma 51:9)
critical circumstances (Alma 57:16)
marching through the wilderness (p. 220) marching round about in the wilderness (Alma 43:24)
began their march (p. 341)
had begun his march (p. 573)
marched over (p. 381)
began their march (3 Nephi 4:25)
had begun his march (Alma 52:15)
marched over (Alma 43:25)
places of security (p. 345)
place of retreat (p. 368)
places of security (Alma 50:4)
places of retreat (Alma 49:11)
cut off their retreat (p. 380) cut off the way of their retreat (3 Nephi 4:24)
his whole army (p. 355) his whole army (Helaman 1:20)
at the head of his army (p. 385) at the head of his army (Alma 49:10)
little army (p. 425)
little band (p. 486)
little army (Alma 56:19)
little band (Alma 57:6)
surrendered themselves prisoners of war (p. 269) surrendered themselves prisoners of war (Alma 57:14)
a council of war (p. 363) a council of war (Alma 52:19)
fought and bled (p. 541) fought and bled (Alma 60:9)
spilling the blood (p. 265)
drink his blood (p. 213)
spill your blood (Alma 44:11)
drink his blood (Alma 49:27)
scene of bloodshed (p. 522) scene of bloodshed (Alma 28:10)
awful crisis (p. 195) awful crisis (Alma 34:34)
among their slain (p. 380) among the number who were slain (Helaman 1:30)
in great numbers (p. 376)
a vast number (p. 260)
in great numbers (Alma 57:14)
a vast number (Alma 56:10)
in so short a space (p. 416) in so short a space (Alma 56:50)
ways and means (p. 396) ways and means (Mosiah 4:29)
precious metals (p. 185) precious metals (Helaman 6:9)
supply of provisions (p. 9) supply of provisions (Alma 57:6)
did not molest them (p. 416) did not molest them (Mosiah 19:29)
took possession of (p. 429)
take command (p. 412)
take up arms (p. 370)
took possession of (Mosiah 23:29)
took command (Alma 53:2)
take up arms (Alma 2:10)
obliged to flee (p. 450)
were obliged to (p. 366)
obliged to flee (Alma 59:8)
were obliged to (Alma 59:8)
The stratagem (p. 372) by stratagem (Alma 52:10)
preparations for (p. 377)
preparations were made (p. 445)
preparations for (Jarom 1:8)
made preparations (Alma 24:20)
upwards of (p. 338)) upwards of (Alma 57:14))
Moravian towns (p. 475) Morianton (Alma 50:25)
The town was also picquetted in with strong picquets, and surrounded with a ditch, and a bank, near the height of a common parapet (p. 568)
formed of earth with a parapet and ditch (p. 276)
formed of piquets (p. 364)
a picket of 150 men (p. 435)
erection of works (p. 351)
a work was thrown up (478)
bank of the ditch (Alma 53:4)
works of timbers built up to the height of a man (Alma 50:2)
a frame of pickets built upon the timbers (Alma 50:3)
works of pickets (Alma 50:4)
the bank which had been thrown up (Alma 49:18)
threw down their arms (p. 380) threw down their weapons (Alma 52:38)
lay on their arms (p. 414)) slept upon their swords (Ether 15:4)
fallen into his hands (p. 418) fallen into the hands (Mosiah 1:14)
leveled with the dust (p. 515) level them with the earth (Alma 51:17)
Their army was reduced (p. 451) army had been reduced (Alma 56:10)
driving the Americans before them (p. 289)
and drove him (p. 441)
alternately drove, and were driven by each other (p. 378)
driving the Nephites before them (Alma 51:28)
and drove him (Ether 13:29)
they were driven back, or they drove them back (Mosiah 11:18)
Pressed on their rear (p. 175)
harassed the rear (p. 339)
attacked in the rear as well as in the front (p. 426)
pressed upon their rear (Alma 52:36)
they did harass them (Alma 51:32)
both in their front and in their rear (3 Nephi 4:25)
bring them up in the rear at the same time they were met in the front (Alma 56:23)
to the left (p. 379)
on the right (p. 380)
to the left (Alma 56:37)
on the right (Alma 58:17)
His army was posted…on both sides of the North river (p. 435) the armies of Moroni…on both sides of the river (Alma 43:52)
river Delaware (p. 343) river Sidon (Alma 2:15)
by a secret way (p. 217) by a secret way (Helaman 2:11)
the narrow passage (p. 272) the narrow passage (Mormon 2:29)
neck of land (p. 118) neck of land (Alma 22:32)
a profound silence (p. 187) a profound silence (Alma 55:17)
hemmed in (p. 383) hemmed in (Alma 22:33)
withdraw themselves (p. 399) withdraw themselves (3 Nephi 4:23)
direct course (p. 412) direct course (Alma 37:24)
armies which were coming against them (p. 273) his army coming against them (Alma 52:28)
commenced his attack (p. 345)
the commencement of (p. 379)
battle had commenced (Alma 56:49)
the commencement of (1 Nephi 1:4)
accomplishing the designs (p. 260) accomplish his designs (Alma 47:16)
The active zeal of the industrious provincials completed lines of defence by the morning, which astonished the garrison (p. 245) the chief captains of the Lamanites were astonished exceedingly, because of the wisdom of the Nephites in preparing their places of security (Alma 49:5)
disappointments (p. 379)
disappointed (p. 414)
embarrassments (p. 376)
disappointment (Alma 49:4)
disappointed (Alma 56:23)
embarrassments (Alma 58:9)

In addition to the above references, Ramsay refers to other disappointments and embarrassments in his Life of George Washington.

Ramsay Book of Mormon
The British General immediately marched his army back from Amboy, with great expedition, hoping to bring on a general action on equal ground; but he was disappointed. (Chap. 4) in this thing they were disappointed, for the Nephites did not fear them (3 Nephi 4:10)

we were disappointed in this our desire (Alma 56:23)
the embarrassments which cramped the operations of Washington (Chap. 7)

In a letter to congress he expressed his embarrassment (Chap. 7)
the cause of these our embarrassments (Alma 58:9)
Ramsay's Life of George Washington also contains these parallels.
Ramsay, Chapter 4 Book of Mormon
The Americans moved from their encampment on the Skippack road in the evening of the 3rd of October, with the intentioin of surprising their adversaries early next morning, and to attack both wings in front and rear at the same time And this they did do in the night-time, and got on their march beyond the robbers, so that on the morrow, when the robbers began their march, they were met by the armies of the Nephites both in their front and in their rear (3 Nephi 4:25)
to fall upon the rear to fall upon them in the rear (Alma 56:23)

We will now continue with more parallels from Ramsay's History.

Ramsay Book of Mormon
the Americans severely felt the scarcity of provisions. Their murmurs became audible (p. 488) were this all we had suffered we would not murmur (Alma 60:4)
a vigorous determined opposition was the only alternative for the preservation of their property, their children and their wives (p. 371) and were fixed with a determination to conquer our enemies, and to maintain our lands, and our possessions, and our wives, and our children (Alma 58:12)
fixed in his resolution (p. 379)
a determined resolution (p. 229)
fixed in his determination (p. 397)
fixed in their minds with a determined resolution (Alma 47:6)
with firmness (p. 378) with such firmness (Mormon 2:25)
threatening them with destruction (p. 257) threatened them with destruction (1 Nephi 18:20)
on his right hand was justice (p. 664) the sword of his justice in his right hand (3 Nephi 29:4)
His soul was harrowed up (p. 288) his soul began to be harrowed up (Alma 14:6)
gain their point (p. 618) gain the point (Alma 46:29)
an ignominious death (p. 295) an ignominious death (Alma 1:15)
distinction of ranks (p. 30) distinguished by ranks (3 Nephi 6:12)
one heart and one mind (p. 110) in one mind and in one heart (2 Nephi 1:21)
the minds of the people (p. 450) the minds of the people (Alma 17:6)
warm tempers (p. 179) warm dispute (Alma 51:4)
much confusion (p. 190) much confusion (Alma 52:28)
an equal chance (p. 533) an equal chance (Alma 49:22)
stand or fall (p. 354) stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
learn wisdom (p. 665) learn wisdom (Alma 38:9)
present and future generations (p. 667)
future day (p. 399)
unto us as well as unto future generations (Alma 24:14)
future day (Enos 1:13)
the art of war (p. 443) the arts of war (Ether 13:16)
lust of power and gain (p. 324)
to usurp the executive power (p. 231)
to get power and gain (Ether 8:22)
to usurp power (Alma 60:27)
the powers of the earth (p. 416) the powers of the earth (3 Nephi 28:39)
lull them into a fatal security (p. 403) lull them away into carnal security (2 Nephi 28:21)
a state of nature (p. 123) a state of nature (Alma 41:11)
humble servant (p. 408) humble servant (Alma 8:19)
compel the inhabitants to take arms (p. 213)
their American brethren…taking up arms against them (p. 485)
compel them to arms (Alma 47:3)
commanded them that they should take up arms against their brethren (Alma 2:10)
by these names (p. 656) by these names (Jacob 1:14)
called themselves loyalists (p. 441) called themselves Zoramites (Alma 30:59)
put to death these harmless, inoffensive people, though they made no resistance (p. 475) they suffered themselves to be slain (Alma 27:3)
a silent adieu (p. 644) Brethren, adieu (Jacob 7:24)
From these events…I return to relate (p. 440)
I proceed to relate real events (p. 586)
shall be hereafter related (p. 587)
And now I return to an account (Alma 43:3)
I proceed with my record (Ether 2:3)
shall be spoken hereafter (Helaman 2:12)
Thus ended the (p. 450) Thus ended the (Mosiah 29:47)

Ramsay quotes the Declaration of Independence in his History.

Declaration Book of Mormon
friends and brethren my friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
a free people a free people (Alma 21:21)
the powers of the earth the powers of the earth (3 Nephi 28:39)
the works of death the work of death (Alma 43:37)
insurrections amongst us insurrections among you (Alma 60:27)

Ramsay reprints Washington's farewell address (September 19, 1796) in The Life of George Washington. The address was also published in newspapers, such as The Independent Chronicle (September 26, 1796, Boston, Massachusetts).

Chapter 12, Washington Book of Mormon
combinations or associations combinations (Alma 37:31)
to subvert the power of the people, and to usurp for themselves the reigns of government those who have desires to usurp power (Alma 60:27)
love of power and proneness to abuse it had it not been for the desire of power (Alma 60:16)
which binds a dutiful citizen to his country which binds us to our lands (Alma 44:5)
as myself must soon be to the mansions of rest And I soon go to the place of my rest…in the mansions of my Father (Enos 1:27)
a free government a free government (Alma 51:6)

Ramsay also reproduces Washington's last circular letter in his Life.

Chapter 9, Washington Book of Mormon
they will stand or fall thus they stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
the defense of his own person and property the defense of his property and his own life (Ether 14:2)
I now bid adieu Brethren, adieu (Jacob 7:27)

In his History, Ramsay blames the Tories for the war.

It was the general opinion of the Americans, that the continuance of the war, and the asperity with which it had been carried on, was more owing to the machinations of their own countrymen, who had taken part with royal government, than to their British enemies. It is certain that the former had been most active in predatory excursions, and most forward in scenes of blood and murder…the authors of so great a share of the general distress. (p. 623)
Similarly, Moroni laments the insurrection of those who wanted to establish a king.
Yea, had it not been for the war which broke out among ourselves; yea, were it not for these king-men, who caused so much bloodshed among ourselves…had they been true to the cause of our freedom, and united with us, and gone forth against our enemies, instead of taking up their swords against us, which was the cause of so much bloodshed among ourselves…we should have dispersed our enemies. (Alma 60:16)

Moroni's career mirrors Washington's: enemies within as well as without, lack of supplies, being outnumbered, similar defenses and battlefield tactics, and fighting for freedom over slavery. We may also note as a matter of historical record that Tecumseh was killed in the battle of Moraviantown, while in the Book of Mormon a character by the name of Teancum slays a foe named Morianton.

The Founding Fathers

Many of the themes expressed by George Washington are repeated by his contemporaries. Samuel Adams delivered his American Independence speech to the State House in Philadelphia on August 1, 1776.

Adams Book of Mormon
priestcraft priestcraft (Alma 1:12)
Providence providence (Jacob 2:13)
precious in his sight precious in his sight (Jacob 2:21)
justice and mercy justice and mercy (Mormon 6:22)
the justice of our cause the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
the spirit of freedom the spirit of freedom (Alma 61:15)
look up to Heaven look up to God (Alma 5:19)
suffer yourselves to be chained down by your enemies suffer yourselves to be slain by the hands of your enemies (Alma 43:46)
freemen freemen (Alma 61:4)
future generations future generations (2 Nephi 4:2)
dissensions dissensions (Alma 53:9)
whilst the mangled corpses of our countrymen seem to cry out to us as a voice from heaven because of the blood of them who have been slain; for they cry from the dust (Ether 8:24)
the blood of their brethren the blood of their brethren (Mosiah 11:19)

Thomas Jefferson addressed problems with the Native Americans in his second inaugural speech (March 4, 1805).

the endeavors to enlighten them on the fate which awaits their present course of life, to induce them to exercise their reason, follow its dictates, and change their pursuits with the change of circumstances have powerful obstacles to encounter; they are combated by the habits of their bodies, prejudices of their minds, ignorance, pride, and the influence of interested and crafty individuals among them who feel themselves something in the present order of things and fear to become nothing in any other. These persons inculcate a sanctimonious reverence for the customs of their ancestors; that whatsoever they did must be done through all time; that reason is a false guide, and to advance under its counsel in their physical, moral, or political condition is perilous innovation; that their duty is to remain as their Creator made them, ignorance being safety and knowledge full of danger; in short, my friends, among them is also seen the action and counteraction of good sense and of bigotry; they too have their antiphilosophists who find an interest in keeping things in their present state, who dread reformation, and exert all their faculties to maintain the ascendancy of habit over the duty of improving our reason and obeying its mandates.

In the Book of Mormon, Jacob, the brother of Nephi, relates an encounter with a man named Sherem, who opposed Jacob and accused him of perverting the old laws and teaching new things. Jacob then says, "that many means were devised to reclaim and restore the Lamanites to the knowledge of the truth; but it all was vain, for they delighted in wars and bloodshed, and they had an eternal hatred against us, their brethren" (Jacob 7:24). Alma also views the Lamanites as clinging to tradition and ignorance: "for it is because of the traditions of their fathers that caused them to remain in their state of ignorance…And at some period of time they will be brought to believe in his word, and to know of the incorrectness of the traditions of their fathers" (Alma 9:16-17).

There are further similarities between the Book of Mormon and Jefferson's first inaugural address (March 4, 1801).

Jefferson Book of Mormon
the rich productions of their industry riches…they had obtained by their industry (Alma 4:6)
acquired much riches by the hand of my industry (Alma 10:4)
to steer with safety the vessel in which we are all embarked amidst the conflicting elements of a troubled world they are led about by Satan…as a vessel is tossed about upon the waves, without sail or anchor, or without anything wherewith to steer her (Mormon 5:18)
by the voice of the nation by the voice of the people (Mosiah 29:26)
all will, of course, arrange themselves under the will of the law, and unite according to our law, and we will newly arrange the affairs of this people (Mosiah 29:11)
in common efforts for the common good

the will of the majority is in all cases to prevail
Now it is not common that the voice of the people desireth anything contrary to that which is right; but it is common for the lesser part of the people to desire that which is not right; therefore this shall ye observe and make it your law - to do your business by the voice of the people (Mosiah 29:26)
their equal rights every man should have an equal chance (Mosiah 29:38)
equal law they were all equal (Alma 1:26)
Let us, then, fellow-citizens, unite with one heart and one mind be determined in one mind and in one heart, united in all things (2 Nephi 1:21)
Or have we found angels in the form of kings to govern if it were possible that ye could always have just men to be your kings (Mosiah 23:8)
Providence…delights in the happiness of man here and his greater happiness hereafter men are that they might have joy (2 Nephi 2:25)

Thomas Paine produced his Common Sense in 1776. The main theme was to expose the evils of a monarchy, both in general and in particular. This pamphlet, with 100,000 copies printed, was credited by Washington with directly influencing the colonies to go to war.

Paine Book of Mormon
But where, say some, is the King of America? I'll tell you, friend, he reigns above this land shall be a land of liberty unto the Gentiles, and there shall be no kings upon the land (2 Nephi 10:11)
for I, the Lord, the king of heaven, will be their king (2 Nephi 10:14)
There are injuries which nature cannot forgive; she would cease to be nature if she did Now the work of justice could not be destroyed; if so, God would cease to be God (Alma 42:13)
the Almighty hath implanted in us planted in your heart (Alma 32:38)
his Image in our hearts his image in your countenances (Alma 5:4)
The robber and the murderer robbers and murderers (Helaman 6:18)
in one and some in another in one and some in another (Jacob 5:4)
plunderers plunderers (Helaman 6:18)
setting the world at defiance set at defiance (Alma 5:18)

 Similar language from a 1773 published sermon by Isaac Backus.

Backus Book of Mormon
no tongue nor pen can fully describe it is impossible for the tongue to describe, or for man to write

And from a letter from Jonas Phillips to the Constitutional Convention, 1787.

1776 Petition Book of Mormon
to come into a Land of Liberty Alma 46:17 "…land of liberty

Another Book of Mormon theme is found in a 1776 Petetion of the German Congregation of Culpeper, Virginia.

1776 Petition Book of Mormon
in this land of Liberty Alma 46:17 "…land of liberty

Reference: The Sacred Rights of Conscience by Liberty Fund.

For a further treatment of this topic, see Thomas Donofrio's article Book of Mormon Tories (off-site link).

Part III
The Book of Mormon: Religious Influences

Ministers and preachers of the era delivered sermons on the subject of the Revolutionary conflict and political issues. These sermons would often be reproduced in pamphlet form. The following similarities are from Samuel McClintock's sermon on the New Hampshire constitution, given June 3, 1784.3

McClintock Book of Mormon
so that unless God should change, that is, cease to be God he changeth not; if so he would cease to be God (Mormon 9:19)
if so, God would cease to be God (Alma 42:13)
versed in all the stratagems of war defended them by stratagem (Alma 43:30)
the art of war the arts of war (Ether 13:16)
the people reduced back to a state of nature men that are in a state of nature (Alma 41:11)
the justice of their cause the justice of the cause (Alma 46:29)
army of freemen name of freemen (Alma 51:6)
should fall into our hands should fall into their hands (Alma 56:39)
rights and privileges rights and privileges (Mosiah 29:32)
secret plans secret plans (Alma 37:29)
a free government a free government (Alma 46:35)

Abraham Keteltas delivered a sermon on October 5, 1775 entitled, God Arising and Pleading His People's Cause.4

Keteltas Book of Mormon
Thus you see my brethren, that the cause of truth, the cause of righteousness, the cause of his church and people, is the cause of God. to support and maintain the cause of God (Alma 50:39)
we will maintain our religion and the cause of our God (Alma 54:10)
the cause of the Christians (Alma 46:16)

Samuel Sherwood preached a sermon, The Church's Flight into the Wilderness, on January 17, 1776.5 In this sermon he links popery with the Mother of Harlots in Revelation. In the Book of Mormon, the mother of harlots is identified as "the great and abominable church of all the earth" (1 Nephi 14:17).

Sherwood Book of Mormon
Flight into the Wilderness flight into the wilderness (1 Nephi 4:36)
so cruelly and barbarously barbarous cruelty (Alma 48:24)
the humble followers of Christ the humble followers of Christ (2 Nephi 28:14)
slavery and bondage bondage and slavery (Alma 48:11)

Timothy Dwight (1752-1817) was president of Yale College and a Congregational minister, a rigid Calvinist, who was strongly opposed to Jacobin/atheistic influence in America. In his sermon The Duty of Americans, at the Present Crisis (1789), he identifies Masons and the order of the Illuminati as destructive secret forces undermining religion and God in America, a possible correlation with the Gadianton robbers in the Book of Mormon.

Dwight Book of Mormon
and faithful defence of our families, our country, and our religion In memory of our God, our religion, and freedom, and our peace, our wives, and our children (Alma 46:12)
We fight for the lives, the honor, the safety, of our wives and children, for the religion of our fathers, and for the liberty, "with which Christ hath made us free." they stand fast in that liberty wherewith God has made them free (Alma 58:40)
a hardy race of freemen…determined to be free or die: men who love, and who will defend, their families, their country, and their religion  
under leaders skilled in all the arts and duties of war  

Jonathan Edwards

Perhaps the most famous minister of the colonial period was Jonathan Edwards. His writings and intellect were heavily relied upon during the Second Great Awakening. Edwards' volume of works became more popular in the early 1800s than they were during his life. Much of his work was "Methodized" at that time.6

Edwards, in his sermon, Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God, describes those that sin as having "hardness of heart and blindness of mind." Edwards couples Mark 16:14 ("hardness of heart") with an apparent inverse of Calvin's enlightening "inner teacher" that "opens the eyes of the mind."7 This same phrase can be found in the Book of Mormon, which uses language and concepts similar to Edwards' sermon.

Edwards Book of Mormon
hardness of heart and blindness of mind
blindness and hardness
hardness of heart, and blindness of mind (Ether 4:15)
so hard in your hearts, and so blind in your minds (1 Nephi 7:8)
they have no interest in any Mediator and hath no interest in the kingdom of God (Mosiah 4:18)
divine justice divine justice (Mosiah 2:38)
eternal death
eternal destruction
eternal death (2 Nephi 2:29)
eternal destruction (2 Nephi 1:22)
stand or fall stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
The souls of the wicked the souls of the wicked (Alma 40:14)
to all eternity to all eternity (Alma 13:7)
a boundless duration an endless duration (2 Nephi 9:7)

Sermon I of Jonathan Edwards' Seventeen Occasional Sermons has further similarities with the Book of Mormon.

Edwards Book of Mormon
the Redeemer of the world this Redeemer of the world (1 Nephi 10:5)
There is in the nature of man enmity against God, contempt of God, rebellion against God. Sin rises up as an enemy against the Most High. It is a dreadful thing for a creature to be an enemy to the Creator the natural man is an enemy to God (Mosiah 3:19)

But remember that he that persists in his own carnal nature, and goes on in the ways of sin and rebellion against God, remaineth in his fallen state (Mosiah 16:3)
The torment and misery, of which natural men are in danger a state of misery and endless torment (Mosiah 3:25)
therefore it is called death. It is eternal death, of which temporal death, with all its awful circumstances, is but a faint shadow. The struggles, and groans, and gasps of the body when dying, its pale awful visage when dead, its state in the dark grave when it is eaten with worms, are but a faint shadow of the state of the soul under the second death And now behold, I say unto you then cometh a death, even a second death, which is a spiritual death; then is a time that whosoever dieth in his sins, as to a temporal death, shall also die a spiritual death (Alma 12:16)

eternal death (2 Nephi 2:29)
the unpardonable sin the unpardonable sin (Jacob 7:19)
a natural state a natural state (Alma 41:12)
by strivings of his Spirit the Spirit hath ceased striving (Moroni 8:28)
boundless gulf of sorrow and woe endless gulf of misery and woe (2 Nephi 1:13)
eternal misery eternal misery (Alma 3:26)
on the wicked, as well as the godly on the wicked as well as the righteous (Alma 40:19)
everlasting misery everlasting misery (Helaman 7:16)
the fall of man the fall of man (Mormon 9:12)
full of all manner of wickedness full of all manner of wickedness (Alma 13:7)
the torment of your body the torment of the body (1 Nephi 15:31)
this torment shall remain to an endless duration, a duration which shall always be beginning, but never ending! to an endless duration (2 Nephi 9:7)

never-ending torment (Mosiah 2:39)
how happy will be your state, should you obtain deliverance the happy state of those that keep the commandments (Mosiah 2:41)
the hundreth part a hundredth part (Jacob 3:13)
They are without God in the world they are without God in the world (Alma 41:11)
They have no interest or part in God and hath no interest in the kingdom of God (Mosiah 4:18)
They, who are in a natural state are lost all mankind are in a lost and fallen state (1 Nephi 10:6)
They subject themselves unto him [the Devil] they who subject themselves unto him [the Devil] (Moroni 7:17)

Jonathan Edwards, Discourse V, The Excellency of Christ

Edwards Book of Mormon
he is one of infinite condescension Knowest thou the condescension of God? (1 Nephi 11:16)
he also condescends to such poor creatures as men his condescension unto the children of men (1 Nephi 11:26)
an ignominious death an ignominious death (Alma 1:15)
who could only torment the body the torment of the body (1 Nephi 15:31)
the God of nature The God of nature (1 Nephi 19:12)
offering up himself a sacrifice for sinners he offereth himself a sacrifice for sin (2 Nephi 2:7)
friends and brethren My friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
to all eternity from all eternity to all eternity (Mosiah 3:5)
infinite goodness infinite goodness (2 Nephi 1:10)

Jonathan Edwards, The Eternity of Hells Torments

Edwards Book of Mormon
eternal death eternal death (2 Nephi 2:29)
eternal punishment eternal punishment (Jacob 7:18)
the justice of God the justice of God (2 Nephi 2:12)
contrary to the nature of God contrary to the nature of God (Alma 41:11)
misery and torment misery and endless torment (Mosiah 3:25)
eternal misery eternal misery (Alma 3:26)
racking torture
racking torments
eternal torments
racked with torment (Alma 36:17)
racked with eternal torment (Mosiah 27:29)
a lively and admiring sense of
sensible of their own guilt
a lively sense of his own guilt (Mosiah 2:38)
to eternity
from eternity
from all eternity to all eternity (Mosiah 3:5)
weep, and wail, and gnash their teeth weep, and wail, and gnash their teeth (Mosiah 16:2)
a state of misery a state of misery (Mosiah 3:25)
suffer the second death suffer the second death (Alma 13:30)
our first parents, were lost, and they were immediately in a doleful state of spiritual death. If we respect temporal death, that was also fulfilled. He brought death upon himself and all his posterity our first parents were cut off both temporally and spiritually (Alma 42:7)

the fall had brought upon all mankind a spiritual death as well as a temporal (Alma 42:9)
eternal destruction eternal destruction (2 Nephi 1:22)
lost forever lost forever (Alma 42:6)
infinite duration endless duration (2 Nephi 9:7)
have no interest in him hath no interest in the kingdom (Mosiah 4:18)

Jonathan Edwards, Discourse IV, The Justice of God

Edwards Book of Mormon
so much like the spirit of the devil, who, because he is miserable himself, is unwilling that others should be happy and power of the devil; for he seeketh that all men might be miserable like unto himself (2 Nephi 2:27)
How have you neglected your children's souls! And not only so, but have corrupted their minds by your bad examples and lost the confidence of your children, because of your bad examples (Jacob 2:35)
How much of a spirit of pride has appeared in you, which is in a peculiar manner the spirit and condemnation of the devil! How have some of you vaunted yourselves in your apparel! others in their riches! you have obtained many riches; and because some of you have obtained more abundantly than that of your brethren ye are lifted up in the pride of your hearts, and wear stiff necks and high heads because of the costliness of your apparel (Jacob 2:13)
And what abominable lasciviousness have some of you been guilty of! How have you indulged yourself from day to day, and from night to night, in all manner of unclean imaginations And now I, Jacob, spoke many more things unto the people of Nephi, warning them against fornication and lasciviousness, and every kind of sin, telling them the awful consequences of them (Jacob 3:12)

Jonathan Edwards was eventually dismissed by his congregation over doctrinal disputes. He preached a farewell sermon in the First Church at Northhampton, Massachusetts on July 1, 1750. In this sermon, as was his custom, he paraphrases Bible verse. Compare his selections to the Book of Mormon.

Edwards Book of Mormon
I leave you in the gall of bitterness and bonds of iniquity [Acts 8:23], having the wrath of God abiding on you, and remaining under condemnation to everlasting misery and destruction. Seeing I must leave you, it would have been a comfortable and happy circumstance of our parting, if I had left you in Christ, safe and blessed in that sure refuge and glorious rest of the saints. But it is otherwise. I leave you far off, aliens and strangers, wretched subjects and captives of sin and Satan, and prisoners of vindictive justice: without Christ, and without God in the world [Eph. 2:12]. And now, my son, all men that are in a state of nature, or I would say, in a carnal state, are in the gall of bitterness and in the bonds of iniquity [Acts 8:23]; they are without God in the world [Eph. 2:12], and have gone contrary to the nature of God; therefore, they are in a state contrary to the nature of happiness. (Alma 41:11)

Edwards tells them who will have the last laugh.

Edwards Book of Mormon
that day when you and I shall meet before our Judge to meet you before the poleasing bar of the great Jehovah (Moroni 10:34)
that day, when you and I shall meet before the judgment seat until I shall meet you before the pleasing bar of God (Jacob 7:13)

Edwards continues to harangue the congregation that ignored his teachings.

Edwards Book of Mormon
state of probation
a preparatory mutable state
this probationary state, yea, this preparatory state (Alma 42:13)
concerning the state of their souls concerning the state of the soul (Alma 40:11)
The eyes of conscience will now be fully enlightened, and never shall be blinded again the blindness of their minds (3 Nephi 7:16)
everlasting damnation everlasting damnation (Helaman 12:26)
every secret thing, whether it be good or whether it be evil whether they be good or evil (Alma 40:11)
everyone will be judged according to his works and be judged according to their works (Alma 40:21)

George Whitefield

Reverend George Whitefield read Jonathan Edwards' Faithful Narrative in Savannah, Georgia, and embarked upon his career as an itinerant preacher. He drew crowds of over 20,000 and his booming voice could be heard by all. Whitefield was most popular due to his bombastic style. His New England Crusade lasted 75 days, covered 800 miles, and logged 175 sermons.8

Whitefield concludes a number of his sermons in the same manner.

Whitefield Book of Mormon
[The Eternity of Hell-Torments] may God of his infinite mercy deliver us all through Jesus Christ; to whom, with thee O Father, and thee O Holy Ghost, three Persons and one eternal God, be ascribed, as is most due, all honor, power, might, majesty, and dominion now and for ever more. Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit which is one eternal God (Alma 11:44)
[Christ the Only Preservative Against a Reprobate Spirit] Now to God the Father, God the Son, and God the Holy Ghost, be ascribed all honor, power, glory, might, majesty and dominion, both now and for evermore, Amen in his glory, in his might, majesty, power and dominion (Alma 5:50)
[Christ the Best Husband] To this Lord Jesus Christ, the Father, and the blessed Spirit, three persons and but one eternal and invisible God, be ascribed all honor, power, glory, might, majesty and dominion, now, and henceforth, and for ever more

Many years after these sermons, the Calvinistic Methodist Confession of Faith was brought by Welsh settlers to central New York state circa 1826. For six years, around 1742, George Whitefield was the leader of Welsh Calvinists.

In the Confession of Faith, paragraph 4 defines the trinity as: "the Father an eternal Person, the Son an eternal Person, the Holy Ghost an eternal Person; but three persons one eternal God." Similarly, the Book of Mormon refers to "Christ the Son, and God the Father, and the Holy Spirit, which is one eternal God" (Alma 11:44). Paragraph 26 of the Confession of Faith, discusses regeneration, or the change wrought by God on humans. Whitefield also refers to this change in his Marks of a True Conversion.

Whitefield Book of Mormon
whether such a great and almighty change has passed upon any of your souls a mighty change wrought in his heart (Alma 5:12)
Has God by his blessed Spirit wrought such a change in your hearts? Have ye experienced this mighty change in your hearts? (Alma 5:14)

Whitefield's sermons contain content similar to Edwards', and the Book of Mormon is similar to both.

Whitefield Book of Mormon
Christ the Only Preservative

Our first parents had not been long in this state of innocence

our first parents (2 Nephi 2:15)

state of innocence (2 Nephi 2:23)
in a state of probation state of probation (2 Nephi 2:21)
not only to become subject to temporal, but spiritual death a spiritual death as well as temporal (Alma 42:9)
The Eternity of Hell-Torments

eternal happiness

eternal happiness (Alma 3:26)
everlasting misery everlasting misery (Helaman 7:16)
an endless duration an endless duration (2 Nephi 9:7)
to all eternity to all eternity (Alma 13:7)
eternal misery eternal misery (Alma 3:26)
this life is the only time allotted by Almighty God for working out our salvation this life is the time for men to prepare to meet God (Alma 34:32)
work out your salvatioin (Alma 34:37)
rebellion against God rebellion against God (Alma 3:18)
sacrifice for sin sacrifice for sin (2 Nephi 2:7)
eternal gulf
eternal woe
eternal gulf of misery and woe (2 Nephi 1:13)

In this sermon, Whitefield acts the part of a sinner who has become conscious of the punishment that awaits him. The fictitious sinner expresses his remorse for following the Devil.

Whitefield Book of Mormon
O that I had never
O that I had rejected
O that I had taken
O that I had repented (Helaman 13:33)
O that we had repented (3 Nephi 8:24)
O that we had repented (3 Nephi 8:25)
miserable for ever miserable forever (2 Nephi 2:5)
racking racked (Alma 36:17)
"These are hard sayings, who can bear them?" thou hast declared unto us hard things, more than we are able to bear (1 Nephi 16:1)
Marks of Having Received the Holy Ghost

and brings forth fruits meet for repentance

and bring forth fruit meet for repentance (Alma 13:13)
love towards God: loving all men love towards God and all men (Mosiah 2:4)

Jonathan Edwards, Jr.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. (1745-1801), continued in his father's footsteps, taking on the evils of Arminianism, Antinomianism, and Unitarianism. In life, his father's doctrinal opponent was Dr. Charles Chauncey, the number one defender of universal salvation. Shortly after Chauncey died, Edwards, Jr., produced a work rebutting his position that all men would eventually be saved. His grandson, Tryon Edwards, published a collection of his works in 1842. Edwards' Salvation of All Men Strictly Examined; and the Endless Punishment of Those Who Die Impenitent, Argued and Defended Against the Objections and Reasonings of the Late Rev. Doctor Charles Chauncey, of Boston, in His Book Entitled "The Salvation of All Men," Etc., was first published in 1789.9

Compare the following similarites and concepts in Edwards and the Book of Mormon. The page numbering of Edwards' 1789 Universal Salvation is from the 1842 collection.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon
the unpardonableness of the sin [against the Holy Ghost] (p. 6) the unpardonable sin (Jacob 7:19)
deny the Holy Ghost…sin which is unpardonable (Alma 39:6)
the justice of God (p. 8) the justice of God (Alma 42:1)
plan of mercy (p. 11) plan of mercy (Alma 42:15)
law and justice (p. 13) law and justice (Alma 42:23)
placed in a state (p. 17) placed in a state (Alma 12:31)
the demands of justice (p. 19) the demands of justice (Alma 42:15)
yet all will be saved finally (p. 23) at last we shall be saved (2 Nephi 28:8)
according to law and justice (p. 32) according to the law and justice (Alma 42:23)
the merit of Christ (p. 28)
the merits of Christ (p. 140)
the merit and sufferings of his beloved son (p. 268)
the merits of Christ (Moroni 6:4)
the merits of his Son (Alma 24:10)
final state (p. 35) final state (Alma 34:35)
endless happiness (p. 26)
endless misery (p. 60)
everlasting misery (p. 93)
misery and torment (p. 93)
endless happiness (Alma 41:4)
endless misery (Alma 41:4)
everlasting misery (Helaman 7:19)
misery and endless torment (Mosiah 3:25)
infinite goodness (p. 38)
infinite goodness is in God (p. 121)
infinite goodness of God (Mosiah 5:3)
a state of probation (p. 66) a state of probation (2 Nephi 2:21)
the justice of endless punishment (p. 78)
endless punishment is just (p. 104)
endless misery is just (p. 110)
an everlasting punishment is just (Mosiah 27:31)
all men should be saved (p. 94) all mankind should be saved (Alma 1:4)
few stripes (p. 96) few stripes (2 Nephi 28:8)
state of torment (p. 97)
state of misery (p. 99)
endless torment (p. 98)
lake of torment (p. 98)
state of misery and endless torment (Mosiah 3:25)
their torment is as a lake of fire (Mosiah 3:27)
unjust punishment (p. 90)
injustice (p. 263)
ye do try to suppose that it is injustice that the sinner should be consigned to a state of misery (Alma 42:1)
the conditions of repentance (p. 103)
saved on the condition of their repentance (p. 136)
conditions whereby man can be saved (Mosiah 4:8)
on what conditions they are saved (Alma 5:10)
the just law of God (p. 114) a just law given (Alma 42:18)
atonement of Christ (p. 115) atonement of Christ (Mosiah 3:19)
provided he do not repent (p. 115) if they will not repent (2 Nephi 9:24)
obtain eternal life and salvation (p. 126) eternal life, and salvation (Alma 11:40)
salvation and eternal life (Mosiah 5:15)
the WISE, just and holy exercise of mercy (p. 127)
infinite wisdom, power, holiness and goodness (p. 129)
the wisdom, and power, and justice, and mercy (Mosiah 5:15)
repent and believe in Christ (p. 140) repent of all your sins and iniquities, and believe in Jesus Christ (Mormon 7:5)
otherwise God would not appear to be what he really is (p. 140) otherwise…God would cease to be God (Alma 42:22)
I proceed now to (p. 142) I proceed with my record (Ether 2:13)
sin is not imputed when there is no law (p. 142) how could he sin if there was no law (Alma 42:17)
standing or falling (p. 145) stand or fall (Alma 41:7)
But this is not all (p. 154) But this is not all (Alma 34:26)
power, wisdom and goodness (p. 161) goodness of God, and his matchless power, and his wisdom (Mosiah 4:6)
temporal death (p. 169) temporal death (Alma 42:8)
ever since the fall of Adam (p. 173) ever since the fall of Adam (Mosiah 4:7)
this fallen state (p. 173) this fallen state (Alma 42:12)
fallen state (Mosiah 4:5)
an interest in the blessings of his kingdom (p. 181) no interest in the kingdom of God (Mosiah 4:18)
state of happiness (p. 184)
happy state (p. 184)
state of happiness (Alma 40:12)
happy state (Mosiah 2:4)
persuade all men (p. 187) persuade all men (2 Nephi 26:27)
the original state was a state of order, regularity and due subordination, wherein every person and thing were in their proper places; so in this sense all things will finally be brought back to their original state (p. 180) Therefore, all things shall be restored to their proper order (Alma 41:4)
brought to repentance (p. 189) brought to repentance (Alma 35:14)
our first parents (p. 189) our first parents (Alma 42:2)
original innocence (p. 189) state of innocence (2 Nephi 2:23)
all mankind will be raised at the last day (p. 199) that I may be raised from the dead, and be saved at the last day (Alma 2:18)
those who die in wickedness (p. 199) if they should die in their wickedness (1 Nephi 15:33)
the plan of God (p. 199) the plan of our God (2 Nephi 9:13)
the great plan of the eternal God (Alma 34:9)
work of salvation (p. 200)
plan of salvation (p. 293)
plan of salvation (Alma 42:5)
the first death (p. 204)
the second death, with respect to temporal death (p. 207)
this first death (2 Nephi 9:15)
the first death (Alma 11:45)
a second death…a temporal death (Alma 12:16)
an endless judgment because it refers to an endless duration (p. 224) an endless duration (2 Nephi 9:7)
eternal deaths (p. 228) eternal death (2 Nephi 2:29)
their bodies shall be immortal or incorruptible (p. 229) and all men become incorruptible, and immortal (2 Nephi 9:13)
Yet from eternity and to eternity are in fact used among us to express an absolute eternity (p. 221) from all eternity to all eternity (Mosiah 3:5)
from eternity to all eternity (Alma 13:7)
the endless misery of the wicked, or they are equally opposed to their endless happiness (p. 229) raised to endless happiness to inherit the kingdom of God, or to endless misery to inherit the kingdom of the devil (Alma 41:4)
final state of the wicked (p. 240) final state of the wicked (Alma 34:35)
It is generally agreed that murder deserves death. But suppose a law should be made, by which no murderer should be punished with death, or with any other punishment to be continued longer, than till he should repent. Would not such a law as this, compared with the law as it now stands, naturally and directly tend to encourage murder? (p. 248) Now, if there were no law given - if a man murdered he should die - would he be afraid he would die if he should murder? (Alma 42:19)
I need not (p. 248) I need not (Alma 13:20)
It will not be denied that if there were no punishment threatened to the wicked, it would naturally and directly encourage them to persist in vice. (p. 247) And also, if there was no law given against sin men would not be afraid to sin (Alma 42:20)
God must be just as well as merciful (p. 264) that God might be a perfect, just God, and a merciful god also (Alma 42:15)
a sense of his guilt (p. 265) a lively sense of his own guilt (Mosiah 2:38)
if they will not repent (p. 265) if they will not repent (2 Nephi 9:24)
forever miserable (p. 266) forever miserable (Alma 12:26)
his good will and pleasure (p. 266) his will and pleasure (1 Nephi 16:38)
ever was or ever will be (p. 267) never was nor ever will be (Alma 30:28)
sincere repentance (p. 273) sincere repentance (Mosiah 29:19)

Jonathan Edwards, Jr., Thoughts on the Atonement, from the 1842 collection.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon
But if we deserve an endless punishment, sin is an infinite evil, and so requires an infinite atonement it must needs be an infinite atonement (2 Nephi 9:7)
nothing which is short of an infinite atonement (Alma 34:12)
the infinite goodness of God
the goodness of God is infinite
the infinite goodness of God (Mosiah 5:3)
the atonement of Christ the atonement of Christ (Mosiah 3:19)
a just law a just law (Alma 42:18)
well beloved Well Beloved (Helaman 5:47)
the cause of God the cause of God (Alma 50:39)

When his father was dismissed as a pastor, the young Edwards moved with his family to an Indian mission, where he learned the Mohican language. In 1788, he published an elaborate study comparing Mohican to Hebrew. The title offers an explanation of Indian origins similar to the Book of Mormon: Observations on the Language of the Muhhekaneew Indians; in Which the Extent of That Language in North America is Shown; its Genius Grammatically Traced; and Some of its Peculiarities, and Some Instances of Analogy Between That and the Hebrew are Pointed Out.10 It is reprinted in the 1842 collection.

Edwards, Jr., delivered a sermon, reproduced in pamphlet form, to Samuel Huntington, governor of Connecticut and the general assembly on May 8, 1794, entitled The Necessity of the Belief of Christianity by the Citizens of the State, in Order to our political Prosperity.11 Compare his style of framing an argument to the Book of Mormon.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon

If there be moral good in any of those tempers or actions, there must be moral evil in the directly opposite; and if there be no moral evil in the latter, there is no moral good in the former; as if there were no natural evil in pain there would be no natural good in pleasure

And if there be no evidence of God's moral perfections, there is no evidence, that he designs the happiness of his creatures here or hereafter

there is an opposition in all things (2 Nephi 2:11)

And if ye shall say there is no law, ye shall also say there is no sin. If ye shall say there is no sin, ye shall also say there is no righteousness. And if there be no righteousness there be no happiness. And if there be no righteousness nor happiness there be no punishment nor misery (2 Nephi 2:13)

Both Edwards, Jr., and the Book of Mormon reverse this phrase from Isaiah 28:13: "precept upon precept; line upon line."

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon
line upon line and precept upon precept line upon line, precept upon precept (2 Nephi 28:30)

Both Edwards and the Book of Mormon also paraphrase Luke 12:48: "shall be beaten with few [stripes]."

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon
Some are to be beaten with few stripes, some with many stripes God will beat us with a few stripes, and at last we shall be saved (2 Nephi 28:8)

Edwards attacks the Universalist doctrine of short-term punishment. The point of the sermon is that the threat of eternal punishment will foster more obedience than a slap on the wrist would. The Book of Mormon makes the same case with the same New Testament paraphrases.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon

Agreeably to the gospel all men are to be rewarded according to their works done in the body, whether they be good or evil

[Cf. Rev. 20:13: and they were judged every man according to their works

Eccles. 12:14: For God shall bring every work into judgment, with every secret thing, whether good, or whether evil]

they shall be judged, every man according to his works, whether they be good, or whether they be evil (Mosiah 3:24)

to be judged of him according to their works whether they be good or whether they be evil (Mosiah 16:10)

in the body…to be judged according to their works, whether they be good or whether they be evil (Alma 11:44)

to be judged of your works, whether they be good or evil (Mormon 3:20)

all sin not renounced by sincere repentance, shall be punished, and every man shall receive according to that which he does in the body, whether it be good or evil sincere repentance (Mosiah 29:19)
eternal happiness that they might reap their rewards according to their works, whether they were good or whether they were bad, to reap eternal happiness or eternal misery (Alma 3:26)
law and justice will be executed to be judged according to their works, according to the law and justice (Alma 42:23)
the penitent the penitent (Alma 42:23)
nothing is so useful as a belief of a final judgment all men shall stand before him, to be judged at the last and judgment day, according to their works (Alma 33:22)
the Stoic philosophers taught that lying was lawful, whenever it was profitable; and Plato allowed, that a man may lie, who knows how to do it at a proper time lie a little, take the advantage of one because of his words (2 Nephi 28:8)
On the plan of the gospel the motive is endless misery the plan of our God (2 Nephi 9:13)
endless misery (Alma 41:4)
actions which tend to destroy our happiness would destroy the great plan of happiness (Alma 42:8)
a considerable number of the aborigines were converted to the christian faith. The pagan Indians were displeased with this, banished from their society all the converts, and when they could do it with safety, put them to death there were many of them converted in the wilderness. And it came to pass that those rulers who were a remnant of the children of Amulon caused that they should be put to death, yea, all those that believed in these things (Alma 25:6-7)
My fathers and brethren My friends and my brethren (Mosiah 4:4)
infinite goodness infinite goodness (Mosiah 5:3)
a just punishment punishment is just (Mosiah 27:31)
they know not, that God is just, gracious or merciful a perfect, just God, and a merciful God also (Alma 42:15)
I need not inform you Now, I need not rehearse the matter (Alma 13:20)
Christianity informs us of the end of our creation in the end of our creation (2 Nephi 2:12)

Edwards explains the heathen practice of exposing unwanted children and adults. Compare this to similar practices in the Book of Mormon.

Jonathan Edwards, Jr. Book of Mormon
leaving them there to perish and to be devoured by dogs that they might leave me in the wilderness to be devoured by wild beasts (1 Nephi 7:16)
they ordered them to be cast into a deep cavern in the earth…also the aged and the infirm, were exposed and left to perish the prophets…cast into pits and left them to perish (Ether 9:29)
they were cast down into the earth (3 Nephi 28:20)
left to perish (Helaman 15:2)
put to death by fire death by fire (Alma 25:9)

Jonathan Edwards, Sr., wrote extensively on the concept of the will. For example he says, "beings who have will and choice, whereby as voluntary agents, they are, and act, as it becomes them to be and to act."12 The Book of Mormon also addresses the subject. Alma 12:31 states, "placing themselves in a state to act, or being placed in a state to act according to their wills and pleasures." And 2 Nephi 2:16 says, "God gave unto man that he should act for himself."

Edwards was a student of John Locke (1632-1704). Locke uses the phrase "state of nature" (cf. Alma 41:11) repeatedly in his Second Treatise, Of Civil Government.13 This phrase has been demonstrated throughout the various works of this study. Locke, in the same chapter, uses the phrase "never was, nor ever will be." Edwards, Jr., writes, "ever was or ever will be," in his Universal Salvation Examined. Shakespeare, in Richard the Third, uses "never was nor never will be." The Book of Mormon has "never was nor ever will be" (Alma 30:28). The significant thread is that these phrases are not biblical.

The phrase "an ignominious death" (Alma 1:15) has also been shown to exist in these various resources. Additionally, it can be located in Gulliver's Travels, Chapter VI. Coincidentally, in Chapter VI, Lemuel Gulliver tells the reader, "having been born of plain honest parents," while Nephi states, "having been born of goodly parents" (1 Nephi 1:1). Incredibly, Nephi has a brother named Lemuel.

Noted LDS historian B. H. Roberts was well aware of the fact that the Book of Mormon reflects the influence of popular preachers like Edwards and Whitefield. In his work A Book of Mormon Study, Roberts does not itemize word for word parallels, but rather demonstrates that the conversion process described by Edwards is repeated in the Book of Mormon.

It is clearly established now that these scenes of religious frenzy were common in the vicinage where Joseph Smith resided in his youth and early manhood. The writings of Jonathan Edwards were commonly accessible throughout New England in those days; and Joseph Smith himself came in contact with these emotional phenomena in his own experience after their rebirth in the early decades of the 19th century. The question is, did his knowledge of these things lead to their introduction into the book of Mormon narrative? I think it cannot be questioned but where there is sufficient resemblance between the Book of Mormon instances of religious emotionalism and those cited in the foregoing quotations from the works of Edwards et al. to justify the thought that the latter might well have suggested and indeed become the source of the former.

There can be no doubt but what the style of preaching, exhortation, warning, praying, admonition together with the things emphasized and the ends aimed at in such work of the Christian ministry as came to the attention of Joseph Smith were all largely and deeply influenced by those first and greatest evangelical popular preachers of Protestant Christianity, John Wesley, George Whitefield, Jonathan Edwards, and Dr. Thomas Coke et al. In saying this I am not unmindful of the fact that these great lights of the Protestant Churches wrought their work in the generation preceding the one in which Joseph Smith lived, and that he never came in contact with them - Wesley, Whitefield, and Dr. Coke on their several visits to America, or with Dr. Edwards in New England. Still that revival of religion which marked the early decades of the 19th century, with which Joseph Smith was familiar, took on pretty much all of its coloring from the spirit and manner in which these above named evangelists conducted their work. The generation of men following them - the men with whom Joseph Smith came in contact, during his boyhood and early manhood, and through whom he heard of these "giants" of ultra-Protestantism of the former generation were but imitators of these in spirit, in matter, and in manner.14


A legitimate question to ask would be, why would the author of the Book of Mormon so blatantly incorporate phrases not only from the Bible, but also from other popular writers? The answer may be that it was an acceptable practice of the day. The Bible was an unquestioned source of truth. Mercy Otis Warren offered her "moral observations" throughout her History. David Ramsay plagiarized from the Annual Register.15 Consider the following explanation from Lester H. Cohen, modern editor of Ramsay's History.

First, scholary citation as we know it was not an issue for eighteenth-century writers, who honored the practice, if at all, only in the most irregular and idiosyncratic manner. Second, eighteenth-century American histories were performances, not proofs; they more nearly resemble sermons, which inspire by enunciating principles and applying them to human situations, than scientific or legal discourses, which depend for their cogency and persuasiveness on their marshalling of evidence.16

In the same way, the Book of Mormon is more sermon than history, more performance and imagination than proof, depending more on inspiration than on evidence. It is a sermon, a political speech, an allegory, and a mirror of the age in which it was produced.


1. David Ramsay (1749-1815), The History of the American Revolution, ed. Lester H. Cohen (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund). Reprint (Philadelphia: R. Aitken, 1789), 219.

2. Geoge Washington (1732-1799), George Washington: A Collection, ed. John C. Fitzpatrick (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund), 46.

3. Samuel McClintock, A Sermon on the Occasion of the Commencement of the New-Hampshire Consititution, in Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, 1730-1805, ed. Ellis Sandoz, 2d ed.(Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1784 reprint).

4. Abraham Keteltas, God Arising and Pleading His People's Cause, in Political Sermons (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund).

5. Samuel Sherwood, The Church's Flight into the Wilderness, in Political Sermons (Indianapolis: Liberty Fund).

6. Joseph A. Conforti, Jonathan Edwards, Religious Traditon, and American Culture (University of North Carolina Press, 1995), Chapter 2.

7. Anri Morimoto, Jonathan Edwards and the Catholic Vision of Salvation (Pennsylvania State University Press, 1995), 16.

8. Samuel Elliot Morrison, The Oxford History of the American People (Oxford University Press, 1972), 210.

9. Tryon Edwards, ed., The Works of Jonathan Edwards, D.D., Introduction.

10. Dan Vogel, Indian Origins and the Book of Mormon (Signature Books).

11. Political Sermons.

12. The Works of Jonathan Edwards, 278.

13. John Locke, Of Civil Government (Chicago: Great Books Foundation).

14. B. H. Roberts, Studies of the Book of Mormon (University of Illinois Press), 308-09.

15. Ramsay, History, Foreword, xxx.

16. Ramsay, History, Foreword, xxxi.


Adams, Samuel. American Independence, August 1, 1776.

Coram, Robert. Politcal Inquiries, to which is Added A Plan for the Establishment of Schools Throughout the United States,. Wilmington, 1791.

Dickinson, John. Declaration on Taking up Arms, July 6, 1775.

Dwight, Timothy, D.D.. The Duty of Americans, at the Present Crisis. New Haven: Thomas and Samuel Green, 1789. Reprinted in Political Sermons of the American Founding Era. Vol. 2. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund.

Edwards, Jonathan. Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God.

Edwards, Jonathan. The Works of Jonathan Edwards, Banner of Truth.

Edwards, Tryon, ed. The Works of Jonathan Edwards, D.D.. Allen, Morrill & Wardwell, 1842.

Gaustead. The Great Awakening in New England.

Henry, Patrick. Give Me Liberty or Give Me Death, March 23, 1775. University of Oklahoma Law Center.

Jefferson, Thomas. First Inaugural Address, March 4, 1801.

Jefferson, Thomas. Second Inaugural Address, March 4, 1805.

Monroe, James. Second Inaugural Address, March 5, 1821.

Morris, Richard B., ed. Basic Documents on the Confederatioin and Constitution. Malabar, Florida: Robert E. Krieger Publishing Co., 1985.

Paine, Thomas. Common Sense, 1776.

Ramsay, David. History of the American Revolution. Philadelphia: R. Aitken, 1789.

Ramsay, David. The Life of George Washington. 1807.

Spalding, Solomon. "Manuscript Story."

Swift, Jonathan. Gulliver's Travels.

Sandoz, Ellis, ed. Political Sermons of the American Founding Era, 1730-1805. Indianapolis, Indiana: Liberty Fund.

Syrett, Harold C., ed. American Historical Documents. Barnes and Noble.

Warren, Mercy Otis. History of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution. Boston: Manning and Loring, 1805.

Warren, Mercy Otis. History of the Rise, Progress and Termination of the American Revolution. Liberty Classics reprint. Indianapolis: Liberty Fund, 1989.

Whitefield, George. The Works of the Reverend George Whitefield, 1771-1772. London.

       Spalding-BOM Textual Parallels